In 2013, WHO released new treatment recommendations that expand the number of people eligible for treatment. The groups newly eligible for treatment include the following: all HIV-infected pregnant women, HIV-infected adults with hepatitis B infection and severe liver disease, serodiscordant couples, adults with CD4þ T-cell counts between 350 and 500 cells/ml, all HIV-infected children between the ages of 2 and 5 years, and those age 5 years and above with CD4þ T-cell counts between 350 and 500 cells/ml. If all countries adopt these new guidelines, the number of people eligible for treatment in low-income and middle-income countries will increase from about 16 million to over 28 million. Not all of these newly eligible people will start treatment immediately. Some, such as pregnant women who visit antenatal clinics, will be more readily identified as HIVinfected than others who may have fewer opportunities for testing. The purpose of this article is to examine the cost of providing treatment to these newly eligible populations and the impact of that expansion on the number of deaths and new infections.
Safety of efavirenz in the first trimester of pregnancy an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.